Why is a "Direct Contact" style cryogenic process so desirable?
With every type of cryogenic processing tank there exists a "constant heat flux" (heat entering the tank). Common to nearly every material, there exists a "cold phase change" temperature state that is close to that of liquid nitrogen (-320F). It is virtually impossible to reach the cold phase change temperature state at the component's core without that component having direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2). If a component does not enter a cold phase change state the free electrons, and lattice structure within the material will not realign, and there will be no "compressive stress" induced. As a result, very little will happen to improve the physical properties of the material, and therefore is a waste of time and money.

Why is using LN2 the preferred method of CSF, LLC?
As a component with significant mass i.e.; crankshaft, engine block, etc. descends in temperature and approaches the "cold phase change" temperature state (near -320F) a condition known as the "barrier phenomena" exists. This is where the heat within a component will migrate to the center-core and whose molecules want to stay more excited and not release their latent heat preventing the cold phase change from taking place. Due to the constant heat flux that exists in every type of processor, and the "barrier phenomena", direct contact with liquid nitrogen is the only way to uniformly reach the "cold phase change" temperature state.

What makes this "cold phase change" so critical?
We are not aware of any other commercial cryogenic processing facility that addresses this phenomena. The "cold phase change" temperature state is a narrow temperature window close to (-320F). This window is common with the vast majority of materials, it is also the key to the science behind the CSF, LLC cryogenic process. The cold phase change temperature state is what allows the free electrons and the lattice structure within a given material to free-up, realign, and tighten thus improving the micro structure and locking in significant "uniform compressive stress". This all takes place within a few seconds of reaching the cold phase change temperature; most important is how the transition in and out of the cold phase change state is controlled. If this transition is handled improperly as with parts placed in open air to warm-up, or in-descriminantly "dunked" into liquid nitrogen etc., the micro-structure within the cryogenic parts material will be severely damaged.

My engine builder has a cryo processor, why shouldn’t I just let him do it?
This would be a big mistake. Unfortunately it is highly unlikely that your engine builder knows how to effectively exploit the power of cryogenic processing. It is virtually impossible to buy a cryo processor, use a pre-programmed generic cycle (which is what most everyone does), and expect world class results. Cryogenic equipment manufacturers may be able to build a processor and sell it to whom ever they will, but they do not understand the true science behind what is required to effect a successful "cold phase change" within a cryogenic engine treatment. It takes years of development and a substantial capital investment to yield a cryogenic stress relief treatment that will actually produce quantifiable results.

What else should I know before I decide to cryo my engine?
There also exists a condition known as the "soft layer phenomena"; this is a situation where certain ferrous metal alloys will exhibit a two to ten micron, or so, thick layer that is somewhat softer than the substrate after being exposed to a cryogenic process that has resulted in a "cold phase change". For this reason it would be good planning to save all machining operations as well as superfinishing until after the CSF, LLC direct contact cryogenic processing is completed.

I’ve heard that cryo will make things “move around” or change dimensions, is that true?
In certain cases something like this can happen, but not for the reasons most people think. Our proprietary cryogenic process is designed not simply to remove residual uneven stressors, but rather to induce significant "uniform compressive stress" which has proven to equate to that of shot peening. Post-cryo process micro-grain structure analysis has shown that this new compressive stress goes all the way to the core of the component. Things do not really “move around”, what happens is some tool steel alloys common with overhead cam bucket followers may grow in diameter .0005in.-.0015in. This is due to a poor heat treatment performed during manufacture that resulted in a high percentage of retained austenite. However, in the majority of cases this is unlikely to happen.

Which is more desirable,"stress relief" or "uniform compressive stress”?
This is one way to tell whether or not a company is utilizing a scientifically based strategy with their cryogenic treatment process. “Stress relief” should not necessarily be the objective. The CSF, LLC direct contact cryogenic process was designed to remove all uneven stressors, but more importantly to induce a significant “uniform compressive stress” into the cryogenic parts. We are unaware of any other commercial cryogenic treatment facility that is able to put forth their process this way. “Uniform compressive stress” is critical with any high performance engine or drivetrain assembly, and any other type of machine for that matter, as it is the key that unlocks everything; improved microstructure, increased core strength, improved ionic bonding, increasing the heat transfer coefficient, reduced electrical resistivity, improved machinability, improved harmonic resonance, increase in wear resistance, healing of subsurface micro-fissures and increase in fatigue resistance.

My engine builder claims that the “extreme contraction” at very low temperatures is what realigns the atoms, is that true?
This is a widely held misconception, and another example that your engine builder (or anyone else) doesn't know "squat" with regard to cryogenic processing. To set the record straight, the atoms do not realign, per se, it is the "free electrons" and the "lattice structure" within the material that will realign and tighten when correctly subjected to the critical cold phase change temperature state. Also, there is nearly a 100% transformation of any retained "austenite" into the more desirable "martensite" with carbon steel alloys. It is true that virtually all metals will contract as they get colder, but not infinitely. The vast majority of all metal alloys will stop contracting at approximately (-150F) or so. It is the direct result of the cold phase change temperature state alone (near -320F) that is responsible for all the positive physical changes that will take place within the material of an engine, or any other machine/device cryogenically processed by CSF, LLC.

I race in a class that is governed by a tightly controlled engine spec. Can your cryogenic treatment process allow me to cheat without being caught?
Yes, without a doubt. Most fully developed race engine assembles cryogenically processed by CSF, LLC typically see a net horsepower increase of 2 to 3%. Our direct contact cryogenic treatment process is undetectable by any method unless the cryogenic engine is subjected to a micro-grain structure analysis. This analysis requires sending the components in question to a specialized lab for review. We have never herd of this occurring. CSF, LLC can indeed assist you in coming up with all sorts of ingenious ways to cheat with little risk of being caught. However, if you are going to cheat, then cheat! Just don't be a ''sissy'' about it.

I see there are several facilities offering REM™ ISF™ super finishing services, aren't they all the same?
No, not even close. The vast majority of companies offering this style of super finishing or micro-polishing services, are compromising the process design intent. They do not specialize, and they attempt to “do it on the cheap” with a sloppy, low price point mass production. One cannot simply hire a so-called “technician” to load a vibrator ("to the hilt") with parts without first painstakingly preparing them, (masking, stoning, shaping, fixturing etc.), take them out after a timer goes off, and expect world class results. This is what will happen if you hire any other company to superfinish your machine assembly. You should also know that any other company will likely take your expensive components out of the box and "toss" them directly into some "vibrator" without any attempt to protect them from colloidal damage, indiscriminate material removal, or chemical etching. Your project will also undoubtedly be lumped-in with several other projects increasing the likelihood of damaged, over-refined, or missing parts. This will not happen if you choose to hire CSF,LLC.

What is unique about the CSF, LLC REM™ superfinishing process?
All super finishing or micro polishing operations conducted at CSF, LLC are preceded with our proprietary "direct contact" cryogenic process, and performed by one individual who is the owner of the company, and possesses decades of advanced engine building skills, as well as many years of professional racing experience. This is invaluable when planning each specific project, as how best to refine all critical surface areas while protecting close tolerances. CSF, LLC will gladly consult with your machinist/engine builder when planning the build, and lubrication strategy of your project in order to fully exploit our REM™ super finishing and cryogenic processes.

What specifically does CSF, LLC do to “prep” a racing motorcycle super bike, or motocross transmission?
First knowing that these racers typically up-shift under wide-open throttle (WOT) is important. We do everything possible to help speed up the shift engagement sequence. If the rider is able to re-program the ignition interrupter to be shorter, this will yield more time per lap under (WOT). To do this CSF, LLC will perform a proprietary process to painstakingly reshape, and profile the gears and ''dog teeth'' to enable a quicker, smoother engagement. These dog teeth are manufactured in the shape most cost effective to produce, and the way the OEM has determined adequate for 99% of recreational riding, not racing.

What type of preparation strategy will CSF, LLC use to super finish a six speed Subaru STI, or Porsche style transaxle?
Every super finishing operation begins with our (patent pending) direct contact cryogenic process, from there all spline areas and gear-set teeth are de-burred and chamfered. Synchro-teeth areas are repaired as necessary, proprietary protective fixtures are fabricated and attached to synchro-teeth, and friction cone areas. All OD and ID bearing surfaces are carefully polished. All Parkerizing or other coatings are carefully removed to ensure an even refinement. Ring & pinion gear-set teeth are chamfered, and special protective fixtures are attached to the ring gear to preserve ID and back surface dimensions. Rolling element, and needle bearing assembles are disassembled and processed separately. All natural stress risers are carefully machined away. Ring gear lightening is also available. The end result will yield a 55-60% reduction in the parasitic drag within the transaxle assembly, reduce lube-oil on-track temperatures by as much as (30-40F) or more, and, it will "shift like glass".

Will my rare/expensive components get all dinged up in the vibrator?
No. CSF, LLC will take extreme measures to prevent this. All heavy pieces i.e.: crankshaft, camshaft and ring & pinions etc. are processed using a partition to compartmentalize the vibratory bowl in order to isolate them from colloidal damage. Crankshaft and other journal areas are masked as needed. Other protective devices are fabricated as necessary by CSF, LLC thus, eliminating any indiscriminate material removal. Components processed by CSF, LLC appear more "like jewelry" than anything else!

Doesn’t a smooth and shiny surface need to be "bead blasted" or “scuffed up” in order to hold oil?
No, the only time this is true is a cylinder bore, valve guide or any area where there exists a reciprocating action, or a low velocity heavily loaded gear, etc. Every other surface should be as smooth as possible. A smooth, or REM™ super finished surface allows for the safe use of a low viscosity (thin) oil, since there is nothing to pierce through the oil layer (lambda) and interact with other surfaces. A low viscosity lubricant generates less friction forces, transfers heat significantly faster, and less oil is held aloft with wind-age. It is important to note that the molecular bond with any fluid and a given surface is quite strong. The “no-slip condition,” one of the primary laws in fluid dynamics, states; The speed of any fluid (liquid or gas) traveling over a surface is zero at the surface, regardless of how fast or slow the free stream of that fluid is traveling relative to the surface. In virtually all situations, a REM™ smooth-surface doesn’t need artificial help to hold oil. In fact, all modern lube-oils are designed to "chemically bond" with a surface. So, the smoother the better!

What does elastohydrodynamic mean?
Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) is a lubrication engineering, and fluid dynamic term used to describe a very desirable lubrication tribology state. Simply put, conditions such as gear tooth mesh, rolling element bearings, camshaft lobe/lifter interface, etc. when loaded can exhibit extremely high hertzian stresses (as high as 400,000 psi) along the contact zone. In between this contact zone, there exists a 1-4 micron (or so) thick hydrodynamic oil separation or, "lambda layer". Lube-oil for the most part is incompressible, so the steel at the contact zone will become elastic during conditions of high stress. The "EHD" state offers no metal to metal contact, and imposes some of the least parasitic drag of all the tribological conditions. Interestingly the lube-oil viscosity along the max hertzian stress zone will thicken and become infinitely harder (harder than steel). The oil then will regain its normal viscosity and flow characteristics as the pressure cycle becomes relaxed.